Дек 172010
 

Тут я расскажу о компиляции ядра в операционный системе FreeBSD
Некоторые могут спросить зачем это нужно, если система и так работает. Да, система работает и с дефолтным ядром, но, по большей части в нем включено много лишнего и не нужного нам, а так же некоторых устройств и фильтров в ядре может не хватать.
Конечно их можно подгружать модулями, но это не всегда удобно.
Приступаем к конфигурированию нашего ядра. Переходим в каталог

cd /usr/src/sys/i386/conf

это для 32 битной системы, для х64 идем сюда

cd /usr/src/sys/amd64/conf

И тут я был удивлен, таких каталогов у меня не было на арендуемом сервере моим знакомым, но ничего страшного, в системе есть хорошая утилита

sysinstal

при помощи которой это все легко решается.
Набираем прямо в консоли sysinstal появляется такое окно

┌─────────── FreeBSD/i386 7.3-RELEASE – sysinstall Main Menu ────────────────────────┐
│ Welcome to the FreeBSD installation and configuration tool. Please │
│ select one of the options below by using the arrow keys or typing the │
│ first character of the option name you’re interested in. Invoke an │
│ option with [SPACE] or [ENTER]. To exit, use [TAB] to move to Exit. │
│ ┌───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ │
│ │ Usage Quick start – How to use this menu system │ │
│ │ Standard Begin a standard installation (recommended) │ │
│ │ Express Begin a quick installation (for experts) │ │
│ │ Custom Begin a custom installation (for experts) │ │
│ │ Configure Do post-install configuration of FreeBSD │ │
│ │ Doc Installation instructions, README, etc. │ │
│ │ Keymap Select keyboard type │ │
│ │ Options View/Set various installation options │ │
│ │ Fixit Repair mode with CDROM/DVD/floppy or start shell │ │
│ │ Upgrade Upgrade an existing system │ │
│ │ Load Config Load default install configuration │ │
│ │ Index Glossary of functions │ │
│ └───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘ │
├───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
│ [ Select ] X Exit Install │
└───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘

Выбираем меню Configure, далее меню Distributions ставим галочку на [ ] src , открывается следующее меню, в котором выбираем ALL.
Выходим в предыдущее меню, сразу выпадет список откуда будем ставить.

┌─────────────────────── Choose Installation Media ───────────────────────┐
│ FreeBSD can be installed from a variety of different installation │
│ media, ranging from floppies to an Internet FTP server. If you’re │
│ installing FreeBSD from a supported CD/DVD drive then this is generally │
│ the best media to use if you have no overriding reason for using other │
│ media. │
│ ┌─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ │
│ │ 1 CD/DVD Install from a FreeBSD CD/DVD │ │
│ │ 2 FTP Install from an FTP server │ │
│ │ 3 FTP Passive Install from an FTP server through a firewall │ │
│ │ 4 HTTP Install from an FTP server through a http proxy │ │
│ │ 5 DOS Install from a DOS partition │ │
│ │ 6 NFS Install over NFS │ │
│ │ 7 File System Install from an existing filesystem │ │
│ │ 8 Floppy Install from a floppy disk set │ │
│ │ 9 USB Install from a USB drive │ │
│ │ X Options Go to the Options screen │ │
│ └─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘ │
├─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤
│ [ OK ] Cancel │
└──────[ Press F1 for more information on the various media types ]───────┘

Для меня было актуально ставить с фтп, так как диска нету/не было в сд роме. В списке фтп я выбрал подходящий для меня фтп сервер, это был украинский так как он для меня ближе и трафик для меня бесплатен.
Конечно по фтп качать не фонтам, но другого выхода у меня не было.

Исходники у меня скачались примерно за час, может фтп был загружен, а может еще что то было, главное цель достигнута, исходники на базе, приступаем к конфигурированию ядра.
Переходим в каталог

cd /usr/src/sys/i386/conf

делаем

cp GENERIC WEB

и далее ее

WEB – WEB

– это наше новое ядро.
И приводим наше ядро к такому виду

#
    # GENERIC — Generic kernel configuration file for FreeBSD/i386
    #
    # For more information on this file, please read the handbook section on
    # Kernel Configuration Files:
    #
    # http://www.FreeBSD.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig-config.html
    #
    # The handbook is also available locally in /usr/share/doc/handbook
    # if you’ve installed the doc distribution, otherwise always see the
    # FreeBSD World Wide Web server (http://www.FreeBSD.org/) for the
    # latest information.
    #
    # An exhaustive list of options and more detailed explanations of the
    # device lines is also present in the ../../conf/NOTES and NOTES files.
    # If you are in doubt as to the purpose or necessity of a line, check first
    # in NOTES.
    #
    # $FreeBSD: src/sys/i386/conf/GENERIC,v 1.474.2.22.2.1 2010/02/10 00:26:20 kensmith Exp $

    cpu I686_CPU
    ident WEB

    # To statically compile in device wiring instead of /boot/device.hints
    #hints «GENERIC.hints» # Default places to look for devices.

    makeoptions DEBUG=-g # Build kernel with gdb(1) debug symbols

    options SCHED_ULE # ULE scheduler
    options PREEMPTION # Enable kernel thread preemption
    options INET # InterNETworking
    #options INET6 # IPv6 communications protocols
    options SCTP # Stream Control Transmission Protocol
    options FFS # Berkeley Fast Filesystem
    options SOFTUPDATES # Enable FFS soft updates support
    #options UFS_ACL # Support for access control lists
    #options UFS_DIRHASH # Improve performance on big directories
    #options UFS_GJOURNAL # Enable gjournal-based UFS journaling
    options MD_ROOT # MD is a potential root device
    #options NFSCLIENT # Network Filesystem Client
    #options NFSSERVER # Network Filesystem Server
    #options NFSLOCKD # Network Lock Manager
    #options NFS_ROOT # NFS usable as /, requires NFSCLIENT
    #options MSDOSFS # MSDOS Filesystem
    #options CD9660 # ISO 9660 Filesystem
    options PROCFS # Process filesystem (requires PSEUDOFS)
    options PSEUDOFS # Pseudo-filesystem framework
    #options GEOM_PART_GPT # GUID Partition Tables.
    #options GEOM_LABEL # Provides labelization
    #options COMPAT_43TTY # BSD 4.3 TTY compat [KEEP THIS!]
    #options COMPAT_FREEBSD4 # Compatible with FreeBSD4
    #options COMPAT_FREEBSD5 # Compatible with FreeBSD5
    #options COMPAT_FREEBSD6 # Compatible with FreeBSD6
    #options SCSI_DELAY=5000 # Delay (in ms) before probing SCSI
    options KTRACE # ktrace(1) support
    options STACK # stack(9) support
    options SYSVSHM # SYSV-style shared memory
    options SYSVMSG # SYSV-style message queues
    options SYSVSEM # SYSV-style semaphores
    options P1003_1B_SEMAPHORES # POSIX-style semaphores
    options _KPOSIX_PRIORITY_SCHEDULING # POSIX P1003_1B real-time extensions
    options KBD_INSTALL_CDEV # install a CDEV entry in /dev
    #options ADAPTIVE_GIANT # Giant mutex is adaptive.
    options STOP_NMI # Stop CPUS using NMI instead of IPI
    options AUDIT # Security event auditing
    #options KDTRACE_HOOKS # Kernel DTrace hooks
    options INCLUDE_CONFIG_FILE # Include this file in kernel

    options SC_HISTORY_SIZE=8192 # чтобы в консоли можно было далеко листать историю
    options IPFIREWALL
    options IPFIREWALL_VERBOSE
    options IPFIREWALL_VERBOSE_LIMIT=4000
    options IPFIREWALL_DEFAULT_TO_ACCEPT
    options IPFIREWALL_FORWARD
    options DUMMYNET
    options ACCEPT_FILTER_DATA # фильтры для nginx
    options ACCEPT_FILTER_HTTP # …
    options HZ=1000
    options DEVICE_POLLING

    # To make an SMP kernel, the next two lines are needed
    options SMP # Symmetric MultiProcessor Kernel
    device apic # I/O APIC

    # CPU frequency control
    device cpufreq

    # Bus support.
    device eisa
    device pci

    # Floppy drives
    device fdc

    # ATA and ATAPI devices
    device ata
    device atadisk # ATA disk drives
    device ataraid # ATA RAID drives
    device atapicd # ATAPI CDROM drives
    device atapifd # ATAPI floppy drives
    device atapist # ATAPI tape drives
    options ATA_STATIC_ID # Static device numbering

    # SCSI Controllers
    #device ahb # EISA AHA1742 family
    #device ahc # AHA2940 and onboard AIC7xxx devices
    #options AHC_REG_PRETTY_PRINT # Print register bitfields in debug
    # # output. Adds ~128k to driver.
    #device ahd # AHA39320/29320 and onboard AIC79xx devices
    #options AHD_REG_PRETTY_PRINT # Print register bitfields in debug
    # # output. Adds ~215k to driver.
    #device amd # AMD 53C974 (Tekram DC-390(T))
    #device hptiop # Highpoint RocketRaid 3xxx series
    #device isp # Qlogic family
    #device ispfw # Firmware for QLogic HBAs- normally a module
    #device mpt # LSI-Logic MPT-Fusion
    #device ncr # NCR/Symbios Logic
    #device sym # NCR/Symbios Logic (newer chipsets + those of `ncr’)
    #device trm # Tekram DC395U/UW/F DC315U adapters
    #
    #device adv # Advansys SCSI adapters
    #device adw # Advansys wide SCSI adapters
    #device aha # Adaptec 154x SCSI adapters
    #device aic # Adaptec 15[012]x SCSI adapters, AIC-6[23]60.
    #device bt # Buslogic/Mylex MultiMaster SCSI adapters
    #
    #device ncv # NCR 53C500
    #device nsp # Workbit Ninja SCSI-3
    #device stg # TMC 18C30/18C50

    # SCSI peripherals
    device scbus # SCSI bus (required for SCSI)
    #device ch # SCSI media changers
    device da # Direct Access (disks)
    #device sa # Sequential Access (tape etc)
    #device cd # CD
    device pass # Passthrough device (direct SCSI access)
    #device ses # SCSI Environmental Services (and SAF-TE)

    # RAID controllers interfaced to the SCSI subsystem
    #device amr # AMI MegaRAID
    #device arcmsr # Areca SATA II RAID
    #device asr # DPT SmartRAID V, VI and Adaptec SCSI RAID
    #device ciss # Compaq Smart RAID 5*
    #device dpt # DPT Smartcache III, IV – See NOTES for options
    #device hptmv # Highpoint RocketRAID 182x
    #device hptrr # Highpoint RocketRAID 17xx, 22xx, 23xx, 25xx
    #device iir # Intel Integrated RAID
    #device ips # IBM (Adaptec) ServeRAID
    #device mly # Mylex AcceleRAID/eXtremeRAID
    #device twa # 3ware 9000 series PATA/SATA RAID

    # RAID controllers
    #device aac # Adaptec FSA RAID
    #device aacp # SCSI passthrough for aac (requires CAM)
    #device ida # Compaq Smart RAID
    #device mfi # LSI MegaRAID SAS
    #device mlx # Mylex DAC960 family
    #device pst # Promise Supertrak SX6000
    #device twe # 3ware ATA RAID

    # atkbdc0 controls both the keyboard and the PS/2 mouse
    device atkbdc # AT keyboard controller
    device atkbd # AT keyboard
    device psm # PS/2 mouse

    device kbdmux # keyboard multiplexer

    device vga # VGA video card driver

    device splash # Splash screen and screen saver support

    # syscons is the default console driver, resembling an SCO console
    device sc

    device agp # support several AGP chipsets

    # Power management support (see NOTES for more options)
    #device apm
    # Add suspend/resume support for the i8254.
    device pmtimer

    # PCCARD (PCMCIA) support
    # PCMCIA and cardbus bridge support
    #device cbb # cardbus (yenta) bridge
    #device pccard # PC Card (16-bit) bus
    #device cardbus # CardBus (32-bit) bus

    # Serial (COM) ports
    device sio # 8250, 16[45]50 based serial ports
    device uart # Generic UART driver

    # Parallel port
    device ppc
    device ppbus # Parallel port bus (required)
    device lpt # Printer
    device plip # TCP/IP over parallel
    device ppi # Parallel port interface device
    #device vpo # Requires scbus and da

    # If you’ve got a «dumb» serial or parallel PCI card that is
    # supported by the puc(4) glue driver, uncomment the following
    # line to enable it (connects to sio, uart and/or ppc drivers):
    #device puc

    # PCI Ethernet NICs.
    #device de # DEC/Intel DC21x4x («Tulip»)
    #device em # Intel PRO/1000 Gigabit Ethernet Family
    #device igb # Intel PRO/1000 PCIE Server Gigabit Family
    #device ixgb # Intel PRO/10GbE Ethernet Card
    #device le # AMD Am7900 LANCE and Am79C9xx PCnet
    #device txp # 3Com 3cR990 («Typhoon»)
    #device vx # 3Com 3c590, 3c595 («Vortex»)

    # PCI Ethernet NICs that use the common MII bus controller code.
    # NOTE: Be sure to keep the ‘device miibus’ line in order to use these NICs!
    device miibus # MII bus support
    #device age # Attansic/Atheros L1 Gigabit Ethernet
    #device alc # Atheros AR8131/AR8132 Ethernet
    #device ale # Atheros AR8121/AR8113/AR8114 Ethernet
    #device bce # Broadcom BCM5706/BCM5708 Gigabit Ethernet
    #device bfe # Broadcom BCM440x 10/100 Ethernet
    #device bge # Broadcom BCM570xx Gigabit Ethernet
    #device dc # DEC/Intel 21143 and various workalikes
    #device et # Agere ET1310 10/100/Gigabit Ethernet
    #device fxp # Intel EtherExpress PRO/100B (82557, 82558)
    #device jme # JMicron JMC250 Gigabit/JMC260 Fast Ethernet
    #device lge # Level 1 LXT1001 gigabit Ethernet
    #device msk # Marvell/SysKonnect Yukon II Gigabit Ethernet
    #device nfe # nVidia nForce MCP on-board Ethernet
    #device nge # NatSemi DP83820 gigabit Ethernet
    #device nve # nVidia nForce MCP on-board Ethernet Networking
    #device pcn # AMD Am79C97x PCI 10/100 (precedence over ‘le’)
    device re # RealTek 8139C+/8169/8169S/8110S
    device rl # RealTek 8129/8139
    #device sf # Adaptec AIC-6915 («Starfire»)
    #device sis # Silicon Integrated Systems SiS 900/SiS 7016
    #device sk # SysKonnect SK-984x & SK-982x gigabit Ethernet
    #device ste # Sundance ST201 (D-Link DFE-550TX)
    #device stge # Sundance/Tamarack TC9021 gigabit Ethernet
    #device ti # Alteon Networks Tigon I/II gigabit Ethernet
    #device tl # Texas Instruments ThunderLAN
    #device tx # SMC EtherPower II (83c170 «EPIC»)
    #device vge # VIA VT612x gigabit Ethernet
    #device vr # VIA Rhine, Rhine II
    #device wb # Winbond W89C840F
    #device xl # 3Com 3c90x («Boomerang», «Cyclone»)

    # ISA Ethernet NICs. pccard NICs included.
    #device cs # Crystal Semiconductor CS89x0 NIC
    # ‘device ed’ requires ‘device miibus’
    #device ed # NE[12]000, SMC Ultra, 3c503, DS8390 cards
    #device ex # Intel EtherExpress Pro/10 and Pro/10+
    #device ep # Etherlink III based cards
    #device fe # Fujitsu MB8696x based cards
    #device ie # EtherExpress 8/16, 3C507, StarLAN 10 etc.
    #device sn # SMC’s 9000 series of Ethernet chips
    #device xe # Xircom pccard Ethernet

    # Wireless NIC cards
    #device wlan # 802.11 support
    #device wlan_wep # 802.11 WEP support
    #device wlan_ccmp # 802.11 CCMP support
    #device wlan_tkip # 802.11 TKIP support
    #device wlan_amrr # AMRR transmit rate control algorithm
    #device wlan_scan_ap # 802.11 AP mode scanning
    #device wlan_scan_sta # 802.11 STA mode scanning
    #device an # Aironet 4500/4800 802.11 wireless NICs.
    #device ath # Atheros pci/cardbus NIC’s
    #device ath_hal # Atheros HAL (Hardware Access Layer)
    #options AH_SUPPORT_AR5416 # enable AR5416 tx/rx descriptors
    #device ath_rate_sample # SampleRate tx rate control for ath
    #device awi # BayStack 660 and others
    #device ral # Ralink Technology RT2500 wireless NICs.
    #device wi # WaveLAN/Intersil/Symbol 802.11 wireless NICs.
    #device wl # Older non 802.11 Wavelan wireless NIC.

    # Pseudo devices.
    device loop # Network loopback
    device random # Entropy device
    device ether # Ethernet support
    device vlan # 802.1Q VLAN support
    device sl # Kernel SLIP
    device ppp # Kernel PPP
    device tun # Packet tunnel.
    device pty # Pseudo-ttys (telnet etc)
    device md # Memory «disks»
    device gif # IPv6 and IPv4 tunneling
    device faith # IPv6-to-IPv4 relaying (translation)
    device firmware # firmware assist module

    # The `bpf’ device enables the Berkeley Packet Filter.
    # Be aware of the administrative consequences of enabling this!
    # Note that ‘bpf’ is required for DHCP.
    device bpf # Berkeley packet filter

    # USB support
    device uhci # UHCI PCI->USB interface
    device ohci # OHCI PCI->USB interface
    device ehci # EHCI PCI->USB interface (USB 2.0)
    device usb # USB Bus (required)
    #device udbp # USB Double Bulk Pipe devices
    #device ugen # Generic
    #device uhid # «Human Interface Devices»
    #device ukbd # Keyboard
    #device ulpt # Printer
    device umass # Disks/Mass storage – Requires scbus and da
    #device ums # Mouse
    #device urio # Diamond Rio 500 MP3 player
    #device uscanner # Scanners
    # USB Serial devices
    #device ucom # Generic com ttys
    #device uark # Technologies ARK3116 based serial adapters
    #device ubsa # Belkin F5U103 and compatible serial adapters
    #device ubser # BWCT console serial adapters
    #device uftdi # For FTDI usb serial adapters
    #device uipaq # Some WinCE based devices
    #device uplcom # Prolific PL-2303 serial adapters
    #device uslcom # SI Labs CP2101/CP2102 serial adapters
    #device uvisor # Visor and Palm devices
    #device uvscom # USB serial support for DDI pocket’s PHS
    # USB Ethernet, requires miibus
    #device aue # ADMtek USB Ethernet
    #device axe # ASIX Electronics USB Ethernet
    #device cdce # Generic USB over Ethernet
    #device cue # CATC USB Ethernet
    #device kue # Kawasaki LSI USB Ethernet
    #device rue # RealTek RTL8150 USB Ethernet
    # USB Wireless
    #device rum # Ralink Technology RT2501USB wireless NICs
    #device ural # Ralink Technology RT2500USB wireless NICs

    # FireWire support
    #device firewire # FireWire bus code
    #device sbp # SCSI over FireWire (Requires scbus and da)
    #device fwe # Ethernet over FireWire (non-standard!)
    #device fwip # IP over FireWire (RFC 2734,3146)
    #device dcons # Dumb console driver
    #device dcons_crom # Configuration ROM for dcons </blockquote>



Я все закоментировал, дабы потом не возникли неприятности, типа лишенее удалил, оставил и т.д.

Переходим к компиляции ядра

    

cd /usr/src
    nice -20 make -j2 kernel KERNCONF=WEB

Пока ядро компилируется, можно пойти покурить, выпить чаю и т.д. времени это занимает от 15 минут и до… главное чтобы все верно было включено в нашем новом ядре.

Ядро собралось у меня примерно за 40 минут на машинке 1.5 с гигом ОЗУ, отвык я уже от таких машинок 🙁

Результат

uname -a
FreeBSD 7.3-RELEASE FreeBSD 7.3-RELEASE #0: Thu Nov 25 01:35:15 UTC 2010 adm1n@:/usr/obj/usr/src/sys/WEB i386

На сегодня все 🙂

  2 комментария to “Компиляция ядра FreeBSD”

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